1. Earth work in Excavation of foundation.
Stability of existing structures. Before starting excavation trial pits should
be dug to ascertain the depth of and nature of its foundation. Shoring should
be used in all cases when the depth of excavation exceeds its distance from the
Excavation . Foundation trenches shall be dug out to the
exact width of the foundation concrete and the sides of the trenches shall be
left plumb where nature of soil admits of it. Where the soil is not good and
does not permit vertical sides, the sides must be sloped back or shored up
carefully. No excavated material shall be placed within 1 m (3’) from the edge
of any trench.
Finish of trench. The
bottom of the foundation trenches shall be perfectly level both longitudinally
and transversely and or completion shall be slightly watered and well rammed.
Excess digging if done by mistake or otherwise shall be filled up with
concrete. If any soft places come to light on inspection or by ramming, they
shall be dug out as directed by the Engineer in charge and filled with concrete
or with stabilized soil.
excavation. The contractor shall arrange boiling water in the
foundations or tranches due to rains. The pumping out of water caused by
springs, sub-soil water or river seepage and broken water mains or drains for
which the contractor is not responsible shall be arranged by the department and
the cost of the same is not included in the rate.
valuable materials or treasure found during the excavation shall be the
property of the Government.
material and labor required for fencing in and protecting against risk of
accident due to open excavation shall be provided by the contractor.
Obstructions. When the
rocks or remains of old buildings are met with, the material shall be removed
unless specifically ordered otherwise by the Executive Engineer Blasting if
required will not be allowed without the permission in writing of the Executive
Engineer. In case blasting is essential, extra rate to be paid shall be fixed in
writing before the work is put in hand.
construction of foundation, the remaining portion of trenches shall be filled up with earth in layers of 15cm(6”) and watered and well rammed. The
filling of earth shall be free from brickbats and clods.
2. Earthwork In
General. Earth used for constructing the embankment
should be of good quality.it should be free from pig-clogs, modules and other
impurities as vegetable growth or weeds etc.
out. The centre line shall first pegged out and marked with “Dag
Bell”. All curves shall be properly laid out and the line indicating the toe of
the embankment shall then be set out.
constructing the road embankment, rough profiles of the embankment shall be
constructed with the help of their rope so that the earth may be filled
according to specification. For the
construction of profiles, bamboos are usually erected at a distance of about 5m
and a rope is stretched along it to give the approximate profiles.
stripping. Earth work shall be carried out and finished in accordance
with the drawings or as ordered by the Executive Engineer. Before placing the
earth fill, the surface area of ground which will be covered by earth work
shall be cleared of trees and bushes, and the surface shall be then be plough
Borrow pits. Earth may be obtained from barrow pits shall be at least 15
m away from the toe of the tank, but these should be located in the acquired
land. All barrow pits shall be dug to one depth. No borrow pit shall be greater
than 30 cm in depth. Barrow pit shall not be dug continuously. Ridges of not
less than 3 m width should be left at intervals not exceeding 30 m.
“Dead man” or
“matams” shall be left at points indicated by the Engineer in charge. The dead
man shall remain intact till measurements are completed, but final payments
shall be deferred till all dead man are removed.
Completion. The earth shall be filled in concave layers of thickness not
more than 15cm, each layer being properly and thoroughly compacted with sheep
foot roller, before the next layer is placed at the top and compacted. Each
work should be started from the outward to inward of the bank.
Where earth is obtained from barrow
pits, in fairly uniform ground, the measurements of barrow pits shall be made. The
quantity shall be worked out in cu m (i.e.,length*breath*depth” Dead Man” of
“tell-tales” should be left at suitable intervals to determine the average
depth of barrow pits.
3. EARTH WORK
Filling. As soon as the Engineer in charge
has measured the work in the foundation, the space in trenches will be laid
with good earth in layers of 15 cm, sprinkled with water and thoroughly rammed.
No filling shall be commenced without the written permission of the Engineer in
floors. Filling under floors shall be done in the manner as
explained in item no. 1 and 2 as soon as the brick work or masonry is completed
up to plinth level. Only sandy soil free from salts, organic or other matter
shall be used for such filling. Where there is black cotton soil, this shall be
removed to a depth of 60 cm as it is liable to absorb moisture and expand and
thus rain a floor.