Tile adhesive : Application properties, technical terms and failure patterns

Table of Contents

Application properties 

  • Shelf life :- Time of storage under stated conditions during which an adhesive is expected to maintain its working properties.
  • Maturing time : Interval between the time when the cementitious adhesive is mixed and the time when it is ready for use
  • Pot-life : Maximum time interval during which the adhesive can be used after mixing 
  • Open time :- Maximum interval after application at which tiles can be embedded in the applied adhesive and meet the specified tensile adhesion strength requirement .
  • Slip :- Downward movement of a tile applied to a combed adhesive layer on a vertical or inclined surface
  • Adjustability : Maximum time interval after which the tile’s position in the adhesive layer can be adjusted without significant loss of adhesion strength

Final properties 

  • Adhesion strength :- Maximum strength per unit surface area which can be measured by shear or tensile testing 
  • Deformability :- Capacity of a hardened adhesive to be deformed by stresses between the tile and the fixing surface without damage to the installed surface
  • Transverse deformation : Deflection recorded at the centre when a beam of hardened adhesive is subjected to three point loading.

General terms :- 

  • Thin bed method :-Thin bed method used for installing tiles onto a plane surface with an adhesive.
  • Fixing surface : Plane rigid surface upon which the tile is fixed.
  • wall and floor tiles :- Tiles made out of ceramic or natural and agglomerated stones.
  • Cementitious adhesive :Mixture of hydraulic binding agents, aggregates, and organic additives.
    • NOTE 1 The adhesives are mixed with water or liquid admix just before use.
    • NOTE 2 Cementitious adhesives are designated as type C.  

  • Dispersion adhesive : mixture of organic binding agent(s) in the form of an aqueous polymer dispersion, organic additives and
    mineral fillers 
    •  NOTE 1 The mixture is ready for use 
    •  NOTE 2 Dispersion adhesives are designated as type D.  
  • Reaction resin adhesive
    mixture of synthetic resin, mineral fillers and organic additives in which hardening occurs by chemical reaction
    •  NOTE 1 They are available in one or more component forms 
    •  NOTE 2 reaction resin adhesive are designated as type R 
  • Notched trowel : toothed tool, which makes it possible to apply the adhesive as a series of ribs of a uniform thickness onto the
    fixing surface and/or the reverse face of the tile.

Failure pattern

  •  Adhesive failure :- Adhesive failure occurs in between tile and substrate as shown in figure 1

  •   Cohesive failure within the substrate :- This types of failure occurs because of weak substrate.
  •   Cohesive failure within the tiles :- This types of failure occurs when tiles  break in the middle. 
  •   Cohesive failure :- Cohesive failure occurs within the tile adhesive when we apply more thick. materials.

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